Appendix E: Alignment Table - Comparing ICT Sub-Areas To The ISTE NETS-S And The Framework For 21st Century Learning

Appendix E: Alignment Table – Comparing ICT Subareas to the ISTE NETS•S and the Framework for 21st Century Learning

A. Construction and Exchange of Ideas and Solutions

Fourth-grade students should be able to collaborate and communicate by working with other members of a (virtual) team to make decisions and develop presentations using a variety of formats. Eighth-grade students should be able to take into account the perspective of different audiences, use a variety of media to create effective messages, and modify presentations based on feedback (virtual). Twelfth-grade students should have developed strategies to be effective collaborators, should be able to take into account multiple viewpoints, and should be able to synthesize information from a variety of sources.

Construction and Exchange of Ideas and Solutions Goals by Grade

Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12

Students know that:

I.4.1: People collaborating as a team can often produce a better product than people working alone. There are common digital tools that can be used to facilitate virtual or face-to-face collaboration.

Students know that:

I.8.1: Collaboration can take many forms. Pairs or teams of people can work together in the same space or at a distance, at the same time or at different times, and on creative projects or on technical tasks. Different communications technologies are used to support these different forms of collaboration.

Students know that:

I.12.1: Effective collaboration requires careful selection of team members, monitoring of progress, strategies for reaching agreement when there are opposing points of view, and iterative improvement of collaborative processes. Information and communication technologies can be used to record and share different viewpoints and to collect and tabulate the views of groups of people.

Students are able to:

I.4.2: Utilize input from (virtual, that is, computer-generated) collaborators and experts or sources in the decision-making process to design a product or presentation.

Students are able to:

I.8.2: Provide feedback to a (virtual) collaborator on a product or presentation, taking into account the other person's goals and using constructive, rather than negative, criticism.

Students are able to:

I.12.2: Work through a simulation of a collaborative process. Negotiate team roles and resources, draw on the expertise and strengths of other team members and remote experts, monitor progress toward goals, and reflect on and refine team processes for achieving goals.

I.4.3: Communicate information and ideas effectively to an audience in order to accomplish a specified purpose.

I.8.3: Communicate information and ideas effectively using a variety of media, genres, and formats for multiple purposes and a variety of audiences.

I.12.3: Synthesize input from multiple sources to communicate ideas to a variety of audiences using various media, genres, and formats.

NETS• S Category 2: Communication and Collaboration

Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. Students:

  • Interact, collaborate, and publish with peers, experts, or others employing a variety of digital environments and media.
  • Communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats.
  • Develop cultural understanding and global awareness by engaging with learners of other cultures.
  • Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems.

Framework for 21st Century Learning: Communication and Collaboration


Communicate Clearly

  • Articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written, and nonverbal communication skills in a variety of forms and contexts.
  • Listen effectively to decipher meaning, including knowledge, values, attitudes and intentions.
  • Use communication for a range of purposes (for example. to inform, instruct, motivate and persuade).
  • Utilize multiple media and technologies, and know how to judge their effectiveness a priori as well as assess their impact.
  • Communicate effectively in diverse environments (including multilingual).

Collaborate With Others

  • Demonstrate ability to work effectively and respectfully with diverse teams.
  • Exercise flexibility and willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal.
  • Assume shared responsibility for collaborative work, and value the individual contributions made by each team member.

B. Information Research

Fourth-grade students can use digital and network tools to find information and identify sources that may be biased in some way. Eighth-grade students are able to use digital resources to find information and also to recognize when information may be distorted, exaggerated, or otherwise misrepresented. Twelfth-grade students can use advanced search methods and select the best digital tools and resources for various purposes, can evaluate information for timeliness and accuracy, and can check the credibility of sources.

Information Research Goals by Grade

Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12

Students know that:

I.4.4: Digital and network tools and media resources are helpful for answering questions, but they can sometimes be biased or wrong.

Students know that:

I.8.4: Increases in the quantity of information available through electronic means and the ease by which knowledge can be published have heightened the need to check sources for possible distortion, exaggeration, or misrepresentation.

Students know that:

I.12.4: Advanced search techniques can be used with digital and network tools and media resources to locate information and to check the credibility and expertise of sources.

Students are able to:

I.4.5: Use digital and network tools and media resources to collect, organize, and display data in order to answer questions and solve problems.

Students are able to:

I.8.5: Select and use appropriate digital and network tools and media resources to collect, organize, analyze, and display supporting data to answer questions and test hypotheses.

Students are able to:

I.12.5: Select digital and network tools and media resources to gather information and data on a practical task, and justify choices based on the tools' efficiency and effectiveness for a given purpose.

I.4.6: Search media and digital sources on a community issue and identify sources that may be biased.

I.8.6: Search media and digital resources on a community or world issue and identify specific examples of distortion, exaggeration, or misrepresentation of information.

I.12.6: Search media and digital resources on a community or world issue and evaluate the timeliness and accuracy of the information as well as the credibility of the source.

NETS•S Category 3: Research and Information Fluency

Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. Students:

  • Plan strategies to guide inquiry.
  • Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media.
  • Evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.
  • Process data and report results.

Framework for 21st Century Learning: Communication and Collaboration

Information Literacy

Access and Evaluate Information

  • Access information efficiently (time) and effectively (sources).
  • Evaluate information critically and competently.

Use and Manage Information

  • Use information accurately and creatively for the issue or problem at hand.
  • Manage the flow of information from a wide variety of sources.
  • a fundamental understanding of the ethical and legal issues surrounding the access and use of information.

C. Investigation of Academic and Practical Problems

Fourth-grade students are able to use digital tools to investigate local issues, test hypotheses, and build models. Eighth-grade students are able to use digital tools to investigate alternative solutions to global issues, test moderately complicated hypotheses, build models, and conduct simulations. Twelfth-grade students can conduct more sophisticated investigations and simulations as well as recognize their limitations. For all levels the focus is on types of hardware and software rather than on use of particular hardware or software products.

Investigation of Academic and Practical Problems Goals by Grade

Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12

Students are able to:

I.4.7: Use digital tools and resources to identify and investigate a local issue and generate possible solutions.


Students are able to:

I.8.7: Use digital tools to identify a global issue and investigate possible solutions. Select and present the most promising sustainable solution.

Students are able to:

I.12.7: Use digital tools and resources to identify a complicated global issue and develop a systematic plan of investigation. Present findings in terms of pros and cons of two or more innovative sustainable solutions.

I.4.8: Use digital tools to test simple hypotheses in various subject areas.

I.8.8: Use digital tools to gather and display data in order to test hypotheses of moderate complexity in various subject areas. Draw and report conclusions consistent with observations.

I.12.8: Use digital tools to collect, analyze, and display data in order to design and conduct complicated investigations in various subject areas. Explain rationale for the design and justify conclusions based on observed patterns in the data.

I.4.9: Use digital models to describe how parts of a whole interact with each other in a model of a system.

I.8.9: Use a digital model of a system to conduct a simulation. Explain how changes in the model result in different outcomes.

I.12.9: Having conducted a simulation of a system using a digital model, draw conclusions about the system, or propose possible solutions to a problem or ways to reach a goal based on outcomes of the simulation. Critique the conclusions based on the adequacy of the model.

NETS•S Category 4: Critical Thinking and Decision-Making

Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. Students:

  • Identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
  • Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
  • Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions.
  • Use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.

Framework for 21st Century Learning: Communication and Collaboration

Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving

Reason Effectively

  • Use various types of reasoning (inductive, deductive, etc.) as appropriate to the situation.

Use Systems Thinking

  • Analyze how parts of a whole interact with each other to produce overall outcomes in complex systems.

Make Judgments and Decisions

  • Effectively analyze and evaluate evidence, arguments, claims and beliefs.
  • Analyze and evaluate major alternative points of view.
  • Synthesize and make connections between information and arguments.
  • Interpret information and draw conclusions based on the best analysis.
  • Reflect critically on learning experiences and processes.

Solve Problems

  • Solve different kinds of nonfamiliar problems in both conventional and innovative ways.
  • Identify and ask significant questions that clarify various points of view and lead to better solutions.

D. Acknowledgment of Ideas and Information

Fourth-grade students exhibit digital citizenship by understanding that it is permissible to use others' ideas as long as appropriate credit is given but that copyrighted materials cannot be shared freely. Eighth-grade students should be aware of and comply with laws and ethical guidelines for incorporating ideas, text, and images into their own work. Twelfth-grade students should understand the reasons for protecting intellectual property and demonstrate responsible and ethical behaviors when using ideas, quotes, and images from others.

Acknowledgment of Ideas and Information Goals by Grade

Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12

Students know that:

I.4.10: It is allowable to use other people's ideas in one's own work provided that proper credit is given to the original source, whether information is shared in person or through ICT media.

Students know that:

I.8.10: Style guides provide detailed examples for how to give appropriate credit to others when incorporating their ideas, text, or images in one's own work.

Students know that:

I.12.10: Legal requirements governing the use of copyrighted information and ethical guidelines for appropriate citations are intended to protect intellectual property.

Students are able to:

I.4.11: Identify or provide examples demonstrating respect for copyrighted material, such as resisting the request from a friend to copy a song from a CD or placing copyrighted material online.

Students are able to:

I.8.11: Identify or provide examples of fair use practices that apply appropriate citation of sources when using information from books or digital resources.

Students are able to:

I.12.11: Identify or provide examples of responsible and ethical behavior that follow the letter and spirit of current laws concerning personal and commercial uses of copyrighted material as well as accepted ethical practices when using verbatim quotes, images, or ideas generated by others.

NETS•S Category 5: Digital Citizenship

Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior. Students:

  • Advocate and practice safe, legal, and responsible use of information and technology.
  • Exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity.
  • Demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning.
  • Exhibit leadership for digital citizenship.

Framework for 21st Century Learning: Communication and Collaboration

Life and Career Skills: Leadership and Responsibility

Guide and Lead Others

  • Use interpersonal and problem-solving skills to influence and guide others toward a goal.
  • Leverage strengths of others to accomplish a common goal.
  • Inspire others to reach their very best via example and selflessness.

Be Responsible to Others

  • Act responsibly with the interests of the larger community in mind.

E. Selection and Use of Digital Tools

Fourth-grade students know that different digital tools have different purposes and are able to use a number of different tools. Eighth-grade students can categorize digital tools by function and can select appropriate tools and demonstrate effective use of the tools for different purposes. Twelfth-grade students are competent in the use of a broad variety of digital tools and can justify why certain tools are chosen over others that might accomplish the same task, by referencing specific features.

Selection and Use of Digital Tools by Grade

Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12

Students know that:

I.4.12: Different digital tools have different purposes.


Students know that:

I.8.12: Certain digital tools are appropriate for gathering, organizing, analyzing, and presenting information, while other kinds of tools are appropriate for creating text, visualizations, and models and for communicating with others.

Students know that:

I.12.12: A variety of digital tools exist for a given purpose. The tools differ in features, capacities, operating modes, and style. Knowledge about many different ICT tools is helpful in selecting the best tool for a given task.

Students are able to:

I.4.13: Use digital tools (appropriate for fourth-grade students) effectively for different purposes, such as searching, organizing, and presenting information.

Students are able to:

I.8.13: Use appropriate digital tools to accomplish a variety of tasks, including gathering, analyzing, and presenting information as well as creating text, visualizations, and models and communicating with others.

Students are able to:

I.12.13: Demonstrate the capability to use a variety of digital tools to accomplish a task or develop a solution for a practical problem. Justify the choice of tools, explain why other tools were not used based on specific features of the tools, and summarize the results.

NETS•S Category 6: Technology Operations and Concepts

Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations. Students:

  • Understand and use technology systems.
  • Select and use applications effectively and productively.
  • Troubleshoot systems and applications.
  • Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies.

Framework for 21st Century Learning: Communication and Collaboration

Apply Technology Effectively

  • Use technology as a tool to research, organize, evaluate and communicate information.
  • Use digital technologies (computers, PDAs, media players, GPS, etc.), communication/networking tools and social networks appropriately to access, manage, integrate, evaluate and create information to successfully function in a knowledge economy.
  • Apply a fundamental understanding of the ethical/legal issues surrounding the access and use of information technologies.