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Appendix F: Alignment Table - Comparing Design And Systems Sub-Areas To The ITEEA Standards For Technological Literacy

Appendix F: Alignment Table – Comparing Design and Systems Subareas to the ITEEA Standards for Technological Literacy

Comparing NAEP Design and Systems Sub-Areas to the ITEEA Standards for Technological Literacy

2014 NAEP

Standards for Technological Literacy

A. Nature of Technology

Fourth-graders should know that technology involves tools, materials, and creative thinking used to meet human needs and wants. Eighth-graders should know that technology advances through invention and innovation and requires a variety of resources. Twelfth-graders should know how technology coevolves with science and other fields to allow people to accomplish challenging tasks.

Standard 1: Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology.

Standard 2: Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.

Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connections between technology and other fields of study.

B. Engineering Design

Fourth-graders should start to answer the question "How are technologies created?" by learning to deal with simple yet systematic design challenges. Eighth-graders should be able to use a more elaborate engineering design process, including problem definition, the use of prototypes, testing and iteration, and trade-offs. Twelfth-graders should have a deep understanding and a broad array of design skills, including optimization.

Standard 8: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.

Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.

Standard 11: Students will develop abilities to apply the design process.

C. Systems Thinking

Fourth-graders should be able to identify systems, subsystems, components, and boundaries in their everyday world and to construct simple systems designed to accomplish particular goals. Eighth-graders should be able to describe goals, inputs, outputs, and processes of systems, to use reverse engineering and life cycles to analyze systems in terms of feedback and the flow of energy, and to modify and construct moderately complicated systems. Twelfth-graders should understand that systems are embedded in larger systems, to recognize factors that stabilize systems, to use systems for forecasting, and to redesign complicated systems to improve reliability.

Standard 1: Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology.

Standard 2: Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology.

Standard 13: Students will develop abilities to assess the impact of products and systems.

D. Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Fourth-graders should recognize that tools and machines need to be cared for and that devices that fail can be fixed or replaced. Eighth-graders should know that tools and machines must be maintained and be able to use a troubleshooting process to diagnose problems in technological systems. Twelfth-graders should understand the importance of maintenance, be able to analyze malfunctions, and be able to devise ways to reduce future failures.

Standard 10: Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.

Standard 12: Students will develop abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems.