Resources Used in the Development of Assessment Targets
The process of developing the assessment targets drew heavily on documents created over the past two decades by national experts in a wide variety of fields. Primary source documents include:
- Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993);
- Engineering in K-12 Education (NRC, 2009);
- Framework for 21st Century Learning (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2007);
- National Educational Technology Standards (ISTE, 2007);
- National Science Education Standards (NRC, 1996);
- Science for All Americans (AAAS, 1989);
- Standards for Technological Literacy (ITEA, 2002);
- Standards for the 21st Century Learner (American Association of School Librarians, 2007).
- Tech Tally: Approaches to Assessing Technological Literacy (NAE, 2006); and
- Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Learn More About Technology (NRC & NAE, 2002).
Other documents that focused on science but recognized the importance of knowledge and skills in technology were valuable resources as well. These included:
- The Assessment & Teaching of 21st Century Skills, a Cisco/Intel/Microsoft project;
- Benchmarking for Success: Ensuring U.S. Students Receive a World Class Education (National Governors Association, Council of Chief State School Officers, and Achieve, 2008);
- Best practices in various state frameworks on science, technology, and engineering;
- Key Competencies for Lifelong Learning: European Reference Framework (European Communities, 2007);
- PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007);
- Science Framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (National Assessment Governing Board, 2008); and
- Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008).
The steering and planning committees recognize and appreciate the efforts of Achieve, Inc., the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the International Society for Technology in Education, the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association, the National Academy of Engineering, the National Research Council, and the Partnership for 21st Century Skills for their efforts in developing these source materials, for giving permission to quote the materials when desired, and for assisting in developing this framework.